Bernhagen, P. (2008). Environmental and international trade and agreements: the influence of entrepreneurship on participation and compliance. Global Environmental Politics, 8, 78-110. Bechtel, M., Tosun, J. (2009). Change in economic openness to political convergence: when can trade agreements lead to convergence of environmental regulation? International Studies Quarterly, 53, 931-953. Hafner-Burton, E. (2005b). Human Rights Shopping Forum: The Transformation of Preferential Trade Agreements.
Scriptscript prepared for the annual session of the American Political Science Association from September 1 to 4, 2005. Poe, S.C., Tate, C. N., Keith, L.C. (1999). Human rights crackdown on personal integrity: a global transnational study of 1976-1993. International Studies Quarterly, 43, 291-313. Although our study empirically focuses on compliance with human rights standards, the theoretical argument can be applied to other political issues such as environmental degradation, labour standards or the effects of an international institution in general. For example, Bechtel and Tosun (2009) study the effects of PTAs on environmental protection. However, due to the availability of data, this study focuses exclusively on PTAs and respect for human rights. An increasing number of preferential trade agreements (EPZs) play an important role in the state`s respect for human rights. ATPs are more effective than more flexible human rights agreements in changing repressive behaviour when they provide strict standards that alter the essential benefits of integration to respect human rights principles. The PTA enhances the human rights of members through coercion by providing the instruments and resources needed to change the incentives of actors to promote reforms that would otherwise not be implemented.
I develop three hypotheses: (1) The state`s commitment to NGOs and (2) to THE PTAs that provide flexible human rights standards (not related to market benefits) does not systematically improve human rights behaviour, while (3) the state`s commitment to THE PTAs, which provide strict human rights standards, , often produces better practices. I look at several cases to illustrate the processes of influence and test the argument on the experience of 177 countries between 1972 and 2002. I would like to thank Mike Colaresi, Dan Drezner, David Lake, Lisa Martin, Walter Mattli, John Meyer, Mark Pollack, Erik Voeten, Jim Vreeland and two anonymous critics for their detailed and thoughtful comments on different designs of this manuscript. , as well as the many people who helped me by asking me difficult questions along the way. I would also like to thank Michael Barnett, Charles Franklin and Jon Pevehouse for their advice during the research on the thesis that supports this article, and Alexander H.